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With the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment, Christianity experienced additional attacks from major thinkers and philosophers, such as Voltaire, David Hume, Thomas Paine, and the Baron d'Holbach.In modern times, Christianity has faced substantial criticism from a wide array of political movements and ideologies.Bible Commentaries also discuss these, sometimes in great detail.

In modern translations of the Bible, the results of textual criticism have led to certain verses being left out or marked as not original.

These possible later additions include the following: Most Bibles have footnotes to indicate areas which have disputed source documents.

Judaism claims that Jesus did not fulfill these prophecies.

Other skeptics usually claim that the prophecies are either vague or unfulfilled, Many Christians anticipate the Second Coming of Jesus, when he will fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy, such as the Last Judgment, the general resurrection, establishment of the Kingdom of God, and the Messianic Age (see the article on Preterism for contrasting Christian views).

Responses to these criticisms include the modern documentary hypothesis, two-source hypothesis (in various guises), and assertions that the Pastoral Epistles are pseudonymous.

Contrasting with these critical stances are positions supported by traditionalists, considering the texts to be consistent, with the Torah written by a single source, and all of the Pauline Epistles, except possibly the Hebrews, as having been written by Paul the Apostle. Sanders concludes that the inconsistencies make the possibility of a deliberate fraud unlikely: "A plot to foster belief in the Resurrection would probably have resulted in a more consistent story.Biblical criticism, in particular higher criticism, covers a variety of methods used since the Enlightenment in the early 18th century as scholars began to apply to biblical documents the same methods and perspectives which had already been applied to other literary and philosophical texts.It is an umbrella term covering various techniques used mainly by mainline and liberal Christian theologians to study the meaning of biblical passages.They concluded, "Thus in nearly two-thirds of the New Testament text, the seven editions of the Greek New Testament which we have reviewed are in complete accord, with no differences other than in orthographical details (e.g., the spelling of names, etc.).Verses in which any one of the seven editions differs by a single word are not counted.The formal response of Christians to such criticisms is described as Christian apologetics.

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