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In 13–1325, laws were established governing their appointment, conduct, and salary.
These laws stipulated how many times a banditoro was to repeat a proclamation (forty) and where in the city they were to read them.
These proclamations all used a standard format, beginning with an exordium—"The worshipful and most esteemed gentlemen of the Eight of Ward and Security of the city of Florence make it known, notify, and expressly command, to whosoever, of whatever status, rank, quality and condition"—and continuing with a statement (narratio), a request made upon the listeners (petitio), and the penalty to be exacted from those who would not comply (peroratio).
Michael Schudson has argued that before the era of World War I and the concomitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone actively correcting for it.
Many news values seem to be common across cultures.
Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news, even after telecommunications became widely available.
In the Muslim world, people have gathered and exchanged news at mosques and other social places.
Julius Caesar regularly publicized his heroic deeds in Gaul, and upon becoming Emperor of Rome began publishing government announcements called Acta Diurna.
These were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places.The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe.The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new".In Middle English, the equivalent word was newes, like the French nouvelles and the German Neues.Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny (from nový, "new"), the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, and Russian novosti — and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion (from newydd) and the Cornish nowodhow (from nowydh). News is provided through many different media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, and also on the testimony of observers and witnesses to events.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating