Geologic dating activity

By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth.

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More recently, seismologists have been able to create detailed images of wave speeds inside the earth in the same way a doctor images a body in a CT scan.

These images have led to a much more detailed view of the interior of the Earth, and have replaced the simplified layered model with a much more dynamic model.

Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.

Plate tectonics also has provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift, in which the continents move across the surface of the Earth over geologic time.

This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics.

In this diagram, subducting slabs are in blue and continental margins and a few plate boundaries are in red.

Early advances in this field showed the existence of a liquid outer core (where shear waves were not able to propagate) and a dense solid inner core.

These advances led to the development of a layered model of the Earth, with a crust and lithosphere on top, the mantle below (separated within itself by seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 kilometers), and the outer core and inner core below that.

When a rock crystallizes from melt (magma or lava), it is an igneous rock.

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