Steps in validating an instrument

Principal investigators and/or project collaborators will be responsible for providing such materials. In general, the panel should include the original translator, experts in health, as well as experts with experience in instrument development and translation.

Using the same approach as that outlined in the first step, the instrument will then be translated back to English by an independent translator, whose mother tongue is English and who has no knowledge of the questionnaire.

There are basically two kinds of research questions: testable and non-testable.

Neither is better than the other, and both have a place in customer satisfaction and employee surveys.

Back-translation will be limited to selected items that will be identified in two ways.

The first will be items selected by the WHO based on those terms / concepts that are key to the instrument or those that are suspected to be particularly sensitive to translation problems across cultures.

Business and social science researchers often ask non-testable research questions.

The shortcoming with these types of questions is that they do not provide objective cut-off points for decision-makers.Discrepancies should be discussed with the editor-in-chief and further work (forward translations, discussion by the bilingual expert panel, etc.) should be iterated as many times as needed until a satisfactory version is reached. Instructions for providing the electronic version of the final translated instrument to WHO will be provided.The final version of the instrument in the target language should be the result of all the iterations described above. It is also necessary to describe the samples used in this process (i.e.The aim of this process is to achieve different language versions of the English instrument that are conceptually equivalent in each of the target countries/cultures.That is, the instrument should be equally natural and acceptable and should practically perform in the same way.These additional items must be submitted to WHO for review and approval.

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