singles dating best online dating online dating - Steps in validating an instrument

"Non-testable" means that the research question cannot be answered by performing a statistical test.The answers to these questions might be important to know, but the decision making criteria does not involve a statistical test.

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Discrepancies should be discussed with the editor-in-chief and further work (forward translations, discussion by the bilingual expert panel, etc.) should be iterated as many times as needed until a satisfactory version is reached. Instructions for providing the electronic version of the final translated instrument to WHO will be provided.

The final version of the instrument in the target language should be the result of all the iterations described above. It is also necessary to describe the samples used in this process (i.e.

The translator should be knowledgeable of the English-speaking culture but his/her mother tongue should be the primary language of the target culture.

Instructions should be given in the approach to translating, emphasizing conceptual rather than literal translations, as well as the need to use natural and acceptable language for the broadest audience.

These additional items must be submitted to WHO for review and approval.

As in the initial translation, emphasis in the back-translation should be on conceptual and cultural equivalence and not linguistic equivalence.The aim of this process is to achieve different language versions of the English instrument that are conceptually equivalent in each of the target countries/cultures.That is, the instrument should be equally natural and acceptable and should practically perform in the same way.Examples of non-testable research questions are: What do customers feel is fair price for the new product? How do customers feel about the quality of our products?What are employee's attitudes towards the new management? Respondents' answers to these questions can be summarized in descriptive tables and the results might be extremely valuable to administrators and planners.Business and social science researchers often ask non-testable research questions.

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